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Revisiting Graphene Oxide Chemistry

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In the last decade, graphene oxide (GO) has attracted a widespread interest for its mechanical strength, tunable optoelectrical properties, simple processability and its potential as precursor for a low-cost and large-scale production of graphene (reduced graphene oxide, RGO). Nevertheless, after more than 150 year since its discovery, the type and distribution of oxygen functional groups in graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) remain still a subject of great debate. Currently, the most acknowledged model for GO corresponds to a random functionalization of the carbon basal plane with epoxide and hydroxyl groups, forming graphitic and partially oxidized domains. However, no definitive evidence of this model has been reported and local analytic techniques are required to access the chemistry of these materials at a nanometric scale. Electron energy loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope can provide the suitable resolution, but GO and RGO are extremely sensitive to electron irradiation. To solve this issue we employ an adapted experimental setup to reduce electron illumination below damage limit. Read more »

Publications

Tararan, A., Zobelli, A., Benito, A.M., Maser, W.K. & Stéphan, O. Revisiting Graphene Oxide Chemistry via Spatially-Resolved Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy. Chemistry of Materials 28, 3741 (2016).
Santana, A., Zobelli, A., Kotakoski, J., Chuvilin, A. & Bichoutskaia, E. Inclusion of radiation damage dynamics in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image simulations: The example of graphene. Physical Review B 87, (2013).
Zobelli, A., et al. A comparative study of density functional and density functional tight binding calculations of defects in graphene. physica status solidi (b) 249, 276 - 282 (2012). Download: zobelli_pssb_2012.pdf (2.01 MB)
Ivanovskaya, V.V., et al. Low-Energy Termination of Graphene Edges via the Formation of Narrow Nanotubes. Physical Review Letters 107, 065502 (2011). Download: PhysRevLett.107.065502.pdf (506.32 KB)
Ivanovskaya, V.V., et al. Hydrogen adsorption on graphene: a first principles study. The European Physical Journal B 76, 481 - 486 (2010). Download: H-at-Graphene.pdf (254.61 KB)
Hashimoto, A., Suenaga, K., Gloter, A., Urita, K. & Iijima, S. Direct evidence for atomic defects in graphene layers. Nature 430, 870–873 (2004).
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