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Scientific highlights

NanoSculptors carve atom by atom

Sculpting nanotubes

Electron microscopy is a delicate balancing act between using the highest energy electrons possible in order to obtain the best image, while avoiding destruction of the sample under investigation. The trouble is, the electron beam does not just observe, it also interacts with the structure we observe. This can be critical for “fragile” samples such as nanostructures: the transfer of energy from the electron beam can be sufficient that atoms are knocked right out of the material. In the worst cases the sample is destroyed in front of your eyes.

In the current study we turned this problem to our advantage. The idea was to use a STEM [scanning transmission electron microscope] as a carving tool with nanometric precision, with the added advantage that we can image what we are doing at the same time.
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Publications

Arenal, R., et al. Atomic Configuration of Nitrogen-Doped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Nano Letters 14, 5509 - 5516 (2014).
Susi, T., et al. Nitrogen-Doped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Thin Films Exhibiting Anomalous Sheet Resistances. Chemistry Of Materials 23, 2201–2208 (2011).
Ivanovskaya, V.V., et al. Low-Energy Termination of Graphene Edges via the Formation of Narrow Nanotubes. Physical Review Letters 107, 065502 (2011). Download: PhysRevLett.107.065502.pdf (506.32 KB)
Diaz-Guerra, C., Umek, P., Gloter, A. & Piqueras, J. Synthesis and Cathodoluminescence of Undoped and Cr3+-Doped Sodium Titanate Nanotubes and Nanoribbons. Journal Of Physical Chemistry C 114, 8192–8198 (2010).
Gloter, A., Ewels, C.P., Umek, P., Arcon, D. & Colliex, C. Electronic structure of titania-based nanotubes investigated by EELS spectroscopy. Physical Review B 80, 035413 (2009).
Arenal, R., et al. Optical gap measurements on individual boron nitride nanotubes by electron energy loss spectroscopy. Microscopy And Microanalysis 14, 274–282 (2008).
Ewels, C.P., et al. Influence of Fe/Cr on nitrogen doped carbon nanotube growth. European Physical Journal-Applied Physics 42, 247–250 (2008).
Umek, P., et al. Coordination of intercalated Cu2+ sites in copper doped sodium titanate nanotubes and nanoribbons. Journal Of Physical Chemistry C 112, 15311–15319 (2008).
Zobelli, A., Gloter, A., Ewels, C.P. & Colliex, C. Shaping single walled nanotubes with an electron beam. Physical Review B 77, 045410 (2008). Download: PhysRevB.77.045410.pdf (1.13 MB)
Enouz, S., Stéphan, O., Cochon, J.L., Colliex, C. & Loiseau, A. C-BN patterned single-walled nanotubes synthesized by laser vaporization. Nano Letters 7, 1856–1862 (2007).
Enouz, S., et al. Spectroscopic study of nitrogen doping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Journal Of Nanoscience And Nanotechnology 7, 3524–3527 (2007).
Kasumov, A.Y., et al. CVD growth of carbon nanotubes at very low pressure of acetylene. Applied Physics A-Materials Science & Processing 88, 687–691 (2007).
Suarez-Martinez, I., Savini, G., Zobelli, A. & Heggie, M. Dislocations in Carbon Nanotube Walls. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 7, 3417 - 3420 (2007).
Zobelli, A., Gloter, A., Ewels, C.P., Seifert, G. & Colliex, C. Electron knock-on cross section of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes. Physical Review B 75, (2007). Download: crosssec.pdf (399.11 KB)
Arenal, R., Kociak, M., Loiseau, A. & Miller, D.J. Determination of chiral indices of individual single- and double-walled boron nitride nanotubes by electron diffraction. Applied Physics Letters 89, 073104 (2006). Download: Appl. Phys. Lett. 2006 Arenal.pdf (271.38 KB)
Enouz, S., et al. Synthesis and structure of BN-doped multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Physica Status Solidi B-Basic Solid State Physics 243, 3246–3251 (2006).
Kasumov, A.Y., Khodos, I.I., Kociak, M. & Kasumov, A.Y. Scanning and transmission electron microscope images of a suspended single-walled carbon nanotube. Applied Physics Letters 89, 013120 (2006).
Hirahara, K., et al. Chirality correlation in double-wall carbon nanotubes as studied by electron diffraction. Physical Review B 73, 195420 (2006). Download: Phys. Rev. B 2006 Hirahara.pdf (1.54 MB)
Vieira, S.M.C., Stéphan, O. & Carroll, D.L. Effect of growth conditions on B-doped carbon nanotubes. Journal Of Materials Research 21, 3058–3064 (2006).
Zobelli, A., et al. Defective Structure of BN Nanotubes:  From Single Vacancies to Dislocation Lines. Nano Letters 6, 1955 - 1960 (2006).
Arenal, R., et al. EELS measurements in single wall Boron nitride nanotubes. Electronic Properties Of Synthetic Nanostructures 723, 293–297 (2004).
Ferrier, M., et al. Superconductivity in ropes of carbon nanotubes. Solid State Communications 131, 615–623 (2004).
Gavillet, J., et al. Nucleation and growth of single-walled nanotubes: The role of metallic catalysts. Journal Of Nanoscience And Nanotechnology 4, 346–359 (2004).
Gai, P.L., et al. Structural systematics in boron-doped single wall carbon nanotubes. Journal Of Materials Chemistry 14, 669–675 (2004).
Hirahara, K., Bandow, S., Kataura, H., Kociak, M. & Iijima, S. Stretching of carbon-carbon bonds in a 0.7 nm diameter carbon nanotube studied by electron diffraction. Physical Review B 70, 205422 (2004). Download: Phys. Rev. B 2004 Hirahara.pdf (641.41 KB)
Jourdain, V., Stéphan, O., Castignolles, M., Loiseau, A. & Bernier, P. Controlling the morphology of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by sequential catalytic growth induced by phosphorus. Advanced Materials 16, 447–+ (2004).
Trasobares, S., et al. Carbon nanotubes with graphitic wings. Advanced Materials 16, 610–+ (2004).
Stéphan, O., et al. Probing electronic states in nanotubes and related-nanoparticles at the nanometer scale. Electron Microscopy And Analysis 2003 437–442 (2004).
Kasumov, A.Y., et al. Superconductivity in ropes of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Physica B-Condensed Matter 329, 1321–1322 (2003).
Taverna, D., et al. Simulations of electron energy-loss spectra of an electron passing near a locally anisotropic nanotube. Journal Of Electron Spectroscopy And Related Phenomena 129, 293–298 (2003).
Kociak, M., et al. Linking chiral indices and transport properties of double-walled carbon nanotubes. Physical Review Letters 89, 155501 (2002). Download: Phys. Rev. Lett. 2002 Kociak.pdf (643.63 KB)
Roche, P.E., et al. Very low shot noise in carbon nanotubes. European Physical Journal B 28, 217–222 (2002).
Stéphan, O., et al. Surface plasmon coupling in nanotubes. Structural And Electronic Properties Of Molecular Nanostructures 633, 326–331 (2002).
Trasobares, S., et al. Compartmentalized CNx nanotubes: Chemistry, morphology, and growth. Journal Of Chemical Physics 116, 8966–8972 (2002).
Taverna, D., Kociak, M., Charbois, V. & Henrard, L. Electron energy-loss spectrum of an electron passing near a locally anisotropic nanotube. Physical Review B 66, 235419 (2002). Download: Phys. Rev. B 2002 Taverna.pdf (191.9 KB)
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